Holochain Glossary

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Peer-to-Peer: An approach to distributed system development where every peer is an equal to other peers and they coordinate in that manner. (see Distributed)


Protocol for Pluggable Protocols - Ceptr's self-describing protocols stack which enables interoperability between holochain networks.

PACELC theorem

An extended form of CAP theorem to include latency even when there are no network partitions. Reads like "if Partition then Availability or Consistency else Latency or Consistency". (see CAP theorem).


In this context, a phenotoype is the way in which two holochains with identical code (genotype) express themselves in different ways thus making them separate and unique. What is different is the group of people and/or what they are communicating to each other. (See genotype)

Private Key

A secret key that can encrypt, decrypt or sign some data. The functionality of a private key is specific to each cryptographic system. The private key is used to perform sensitive operations. In symmetric cryptographic systems there is only one key, the private key (e.g. password for encryption/decryption). In asymmetric cryptographic systems there is a complementary public key to handle the inverse operation (e.g. sign vs. verify). (see public key).


The official record of origin of data.

Public Key

The companion key to a private key in an asymmetric cryptographic system. The functionality of a public key is specific to each cryptographic system. The public key is used to verify sensitive operations without allowing the key holder to perform sensitive operations (e.g. verifying a signature). (see private key).